By blocking saliva from recirculating or preventing salivary nitrate from being chemically reduced to nitrite, it prevented a rise in plasma nitrite levels, and blocked a decrease in blood pressure as well as abolished nitric oxide-mediated inhibition of platelets aggregation confirming the cardio-protective effects were attributable to nitric oxide via the conversion of nitrate to nitrite in saliva.
In a series of reports by Ahluwalia and colleagues, they showed in a cross over protocol of 14 volunteers who ingested inorganic nitrates, plasma and saliva nitrite level increased 3 hours post ingestion with a significant reduction of blood pressure. Nitrate extracted from blood by the salivary gland, accumulates in saliva, which is then reduced to nitric oxide to have a direct blood pressure lowering effect. Decreasing saliva nitrite in volunteers that already had elevated levels, a rise in systolic and diastolic blood pressure resulted.
Furthermore, pre-hypertensives may be more sensitive to the blood pressure lowering effects of the dietary nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway. A study explored the relationship between allergies and salivary immunoglobulin levels in eighty subjects. Researchers demonstrated an association between development of allergies and disturbances in saliva allergen-specific IgA levels elevated compared to controls and total secretory IgA reduced compared to controls. In Pink, et al. Researchers found that several drug metabolites were detected more frequently in saliva than in urine; this was true for 6-monoacetylmorphine , amphetamine , methamphetamine , and N-desmethyldiazepam.
One often cited criticism of using saliva as a diagnostic fluid is that biomarkers are present in amounts that are too low to be detected reliably.
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Biomarker specificity is another consideration with saliva testing, much as it is with blood or urine testing. Many biomarkers are nonspecific for example, CRP is a nonspecific inflammatory marker , and thus they can not be used alone to diagnose any particular disease. This issue is currently being addressed through identification of multiple biomarkers that are correlative of a disease; these can then be screened concomitantly to create a comprehensive panel of tests that significantly increases diagnostic specificity.
Of note, certain types of saliva testing are considered by many to be more specific than blood testing; this is particularly true for steroid hormones. As with other diagnostic testing methods, one drawback of saliva testing is the variability that exists among diagnostic devices and laboratory analysis techniques, especially for measuring hormones.
As the research community continues to validate and refine test methods and establish standard diagnostic ranges for various saliva biomarkers, this issue should be resolved. Recently, the U. National Institute of Health and Public Health Service each granted significant funding to further advancements in salivary testing, including the continued development of diagnostic standards. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Structure of the steroid hormone Cortisol. May Pineal Res. Wood: ; Richard Phillips. Zodiacus Medico-Gallicus, sive miscellaneorum curiosorum, medico-physicorum sylloge.
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Transl Res. Pol J Pharmacol. Oral fluid is a viable alternative for monitoring drug abuse: detection of drugs in oral fluid by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and comparison to the results from urine samples from patients treated with Methadone or Buprenorphine.
Saliva Testing directly measures active steroid hormone levels. Standardization of hormonal assays for the 21st century. Details if other :. Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. Baum Editor ,. Cox Editor. Gian Luigi Buraggi Editor. Get A Copy. Paperback , pages. Published November 5th by Springer first published October 31st More Details Original Title.
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